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Anemia

May 20th, 2018 No comments

ANEMIA


 

By : Ririn Sholiha

Anemia is a state when the number of red blood cells or the amount of hemoglobin (oxygen-carrying protein) in the red blood cells is below normal. Red blood cells contain hemoglobin which allows them to transport oxygen from the heart obtained from the lungs, and then deliver it to all parts of the body.

Anemia is a common blood disorder. Some anemia has its basic disease. Anemia may be classified by the shape or morphology of red blood cells, underlying etiology, and clinical appearance. The most frequent causes of anemia are excessive bleeding, excessive red blood cell destruction of hemolysis or lack of red blood cell formation (ineffective hematopoiesis).

A patient is said to be anemic when the concentration of hemoglobin (Hb) is less than 13.5 g / dL or hematocrit (Hct) of less than 41% in men, and Hb concentrations less than 11.5 g / dL or Hct less than 36% in women.

Hemoglobin is a major part of the red blood cells that function to bind oxygen. If a person lacks red blood cells, or normal hemoglobin, then the cells in the body will not get enough oxygen, consequently arises anemia symptoms. Symptoms of anemia such as weakness and lethargy occur because organs do not get what they need to function properly, namely oxygen. In our society anemia is known as less blood. Less blood (anemia) is different from low blood. Low blood is low blood pressure, whereas anemia is the lack of red blood cells or hemoglobin.

Causes Anemia varies according to the type of anemia, over 400 types of anemia, which are broadly divided into three groups:

1. Anemia caused by blood loss
That is, red blood cells can disappear when a person bleeds or bleeds by any cause such as accident, injury, etc. However, bleeding can occur slowly over a long period of time, and sometimes it is undetectable. This is called chronic haemorrhage which is usually caused by: Digestive diseases such as gastritis, hemorrhoids, gastritis (gastritis), and cancer, use of anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin or ibuprofen, which can cause gastritis and gastrointestinal bleeding. Menstruating and giving birth to women, especially if excessive menstrual bleeding.
2. Anemia caused by decreased production of red blood cells
Causes This second anemia can occur due to lack of quantity and quality of red blood cells, ie lack of red blood cell production or disruption of hemoglobin formation. In addition it can also form red blood cells and hemoglobin is not good so that its function is not optimal. The causes of this type of anemia are usually associated with deficiencies of minerals and vitamins needed to produce red blood cells and hemoglobin. Conditions associated with the cause of this anemia include: Sickle cell anemia, iron deficiency anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency, folic acid, bone marrow problems and stem cell Other health conditions.
3. Anemia caused by damage to red blood cells
Causes of Anemia Due to Damage to Red Blood Cells When red blood cells are brittle and can not withstand the routine stress of the circulatory system, it can rupture prematurely, causing hemolytic anemia. Haemolytic anemia may be present at birth or develop later. Sometimes the cause is unknown. Causes of known hemolytic anemia include: Inherited conditions (such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia Stress such as infection, drugs, snake or spider toxins, or certain foods Toxic from advanced liver disease (chronic liver) or kidney disease, improper attack by the immune system (called hemolytic disease in newborns, when it occurs in pregnant women conceived fetus), vascular grafts, prosthetic heart valves, tumors, severe burns, exposure to chemicals, severe hypertension , and blood clotting disorders. In rare cases, enlarged spleen can trap red blood cells and destroy them before the time runs out.

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